In no specific order:
Shastri was responsible for the Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan slogan of the 1960s. Shastri’s visit to Amul was the first step in Operation Flood aka White Revolution that began in the 1960s and was intended to make India milk-sufficient. Per this link the Amul Girl was born in 1966.
Around 1961-1963 also saw the introduction of high yielding rice and wheat in India (see Green Revolution). Part of agricultural policy post this decade was also a result of the Bihar famine of 1966-67.
The National Institute of Design was set up in 1961 subsequent to The India Report (by Charles and Ray Eames) in 1958.
Reita Faria becomes the first Indian woman to win an international beauty pageant.
The fashions you have already seen. The big stars of the decade – Sadhana, Asha Parekh, Sharmila Tagore, Saira Banu et al – sported tightly draped saris, tightly draped churidar-kameez, big hair, pale lips and dramatic eye make-up. The Sadhana fringe was a bonafide craze. Sharmila Tagore rocked a bikini. And there was Helen, the cabaret queen of the country.
Ray, Ghatak and Mrinal Sen worked through the 60s but by the end of the decade you see the beginnings of the parallel cinema movement of the 70s and 80s in films like Gejje Pooje, Sara Akash etc with Bhuvan Shome being a commercial success. [X]
A general sum up of the decade through foreign eyes.