It’s probably accurate to say that an indigenous form of the Islamic clothing brought in by the Mughals (a mix of Turkish and Persian influences) took shape during the reign of Akbar and Jahangir. This period also sees the style (imo) at its most balanced and elegant, particularly during Jahangir’s reign (1605-1627).
A slip of a young woman dressed in a pink -tinted *peshwaj*, a filmy overgarment speckled with blossoms and worn in conjunction with her blush-yellow *paijama*, a long golden *patka* ornamented with flowers, and a translucent *odhni*. She assumes a coy pose, tilting her head and glancing across her body, one hand pinning a stretch of her golden *odhni* against her narrow waist and the other lifting the hem of her relaxed *peshwaj*. (Pic 1: Young Woman By Muhammad Ali, Born in Iran, Active in India 1600-1620). The components of a woman’ garment usually seen in Indian miniature paintings in the 17th and 18th century. A little more on the peshwaj here. The paijama is the tight fitting trouser, the patka the sash and the odhni aka dupatta is the pale green wrap. The shoes look like mojris. Apart from the anklets, all other accessories are fairly discreet.
Pic 2: Portrait of Prince Salim 1620-30. The 17th century Mughal costume for men consisted of the 1) jama, a garment that was fitted till the waist and worn crosswise and fastened at the side with a lower skirt like portion that fell below the knees 2) the tight paijamas for the legs 3) the patka (sash) which here is secured with a jewelled belt 4) the chadar aka shawl and 5) the turban. The jama and chador were usually fine muslin, fine enough to see underlying jewellery. The shoes seem to correspond to the salimshahi, a type of shoe introduced by Jahangir aka Prince Salim, flat heeled with a pointed front end (often curved) and without a backstrap (perhaps a precursor of the modern mojri).
Pic 3: A portrait of a Rajput nobleman, attributed to the Mughal master Manohar, mounted on a royal album page, Mughal, circa 1610-20. [X]. The clothing of this Rajput noble is similar to that of Jahangir, by the emperor’s time there was an intermingling of Persian and Rajput influences in Northern Indian clothing. While not always adhered to strictly, the ties of the jama on the shoulder are different – tied on the right side for Muslims, on the left for Hindus as in today’s pic. Note the very light, translucent muslin used for the jama – reputedly spun over the wet months in Bengal. The lightness of the material allows the paijama (literally leg garment) to be showcased. The paijama’s decorative aspect – often floral or striped – is offset by the patka or sash and the turban.
Very thin muslin seems to have had its heyday in the early 17th century in the Mughal court, making way for thicker patterned cottons for men (the linked painting also appears to have a bit of a throwback to Central Asian boots as opposed to mojris like in today’s pic, it is possible that the crossed collar is also Central Asian in origin).
PS: So light an upper garment would require some manscaping I think:)
The chakdar jama seen in the two pics above is similar to the standard jama except that the hem falls in 4 to 6 points. Commonly shown in paintings from the time of Akbar and Jahangir (late 16th/early 17th century), it is speculated that it is derived from the clothing of the Rajput courts. You can see the style in later paintings too, e.g. this one from 1750. Also see X.
For info on the yogini of pic 1 go here. Pic 2 is a portrait of Karan Singh I of Mewar. Karan Singh has a double patka or sash, which is sometimes seen in portraits.
Pic 1 above: Gauri Ragini, First Wife of Malkauns Raga, 1605-6
Early 17th century depiction of a ghaghra-choli (aka gathered skirt and bodice). The odhni or dupatta is extremely translucent and patterned and probably muslin. Usually in this period the garment appears in Rajput or mythological themes, the peshwaj and paijama being more common in Mughal paintings. The patka (the white piece anchored to the skirt) is not always present in paintings depicting the ghaghra-choli. Why it is added is unclear, explanations range from hiding the join (the ghaghra presumably resulted from joining the ends of the antariya, which was in any event worn with a sash with a centre pleat) to controlling the volume of the skirt. Black tassels or pompoms often appear in miniature paintings. See also Keshavdas’s Rasikapriya illustrations, Malavi Ragini, Gita Govinda circa 1630.
The ghaghra with the patka was still around in the early 19th century (see Thanjavur company painting in pic 2 above) though the odhni is draped in a style that is familiar from the modern sari.
The first four Mughal emperors in the pics above. The cross collar was present in early Mughal attire but the tunic was worn loose and with a long overgarment. By Akbar’s reign this was changed to introduce a skirt like lower feature for the jama or tunic and the side fastening was doubled (doshala). This was worn with a fitting paijama, much like a churidar, which also differed from early Mughal attire. As mentioned in a previous post, the patka (sometimes two) was added to the garment. Another change was in the turban, the Akbari pagri (turban) consisting of closely and tightly wound layers of cloth to which a sarpech could be added, much in the manner of the Rajputs. For the sleeveless jacket designed by Jahangir called the nadiri (novelty) see the painting of the emperor embracing the king of Persia, Shah Abbas. The multiple side ties of Jahangir’s jama or tunic are also seen in this painting.
The emperors: Babur, Humayun (painted c 1650), Akbar (seen here with a courtier) and Jahangir (seen with his father Akbar). See also: The earliest datable Mughal painting
Wonderful research, Anu! The pictures are elegant.
Thank you for this lovely post. In their days, the Mughals must have been walking works of art! Everything about them seems so … elegant indeed. But no doubt the painters contributed much to this impression by using shapes, volumes and colours so brilliantly.
My pleasure! Yes I think everything come together harmoniously in the period including the work of the painters the Emperors employed.
Loving so many of your posts of late!